Diagnosis and Management of the Hip and Pubic Symphysis

This IAOM-US course is appropriate for ATs, OTs, PT’s and PTA’s.  The IAOM-US teaches that the essential starting point for orthopedic care is accurate clinical diagnosis.  IAOM courses and resources present effective manual orthopedic techniques established by leaders in the field.  Scientific and clinical research provides the foundation for the entire program.



Psst!  Hi!  This list will automatically update as you update the progress on the various modules. If you click these objectives, nothing will happen. 

2Pathoanatomy Part I
3Pathoanatomy Part II
4Basic Clinical Examination History
5Basic Clinical Examination
6Pathology and Interpretation
7Differential Diagnosis of Groin Pain and Management Suggestions Part I
8Differential Diagnosis of Groin Pain and Management Suggestions Part II
9 Differential Diagnosis of Buttock Pain and Management Suggestions
10Differential Diagnosis of Lateral Hip Pain and Management Suggestions
12Joint Specific Mobilization Techniques
13Course Survey
Diagnosis & Management of the Hip
Diagnosis and Management of the Hip and Pubic Symphysis
Contact Information


Links and References

Afoke NY, Byers PD, Hutton WC. Contact pressures in the human hip joint. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1987; 69(4):536-41.

Adler RS, Buly R, Ambrose R, Sculco T. Diagnostic and therapeutic use of sonography-guided iliopsoas peritendinous injections. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2005; 185(4):940-3.

Afoke NYP, Byers PD, Hutton WC. Tests on hypotheses about osteoarthritis and hip joints. Annuls of the Rheumatic Diseases. 1992;51(4)485-8.

Afoke NYP, Byers PD, Hutton WC. The incongruous hip joint. The Journal Of Bone And Joint Surgery.1980; 62B,4: 511-514.

Akisue T, Yamamoto T, Marui T, Hitora T, Nagira K, Mihune Y, Kurosaka M, Fujita I, Matsumoto K. Ischiogluteal bursitis: multimodality imaging findings. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2003;(406):214-7.

Albertsen AM, Egund N, Jurik AG. Fatigue fracture of the sacral bone associated with septic arthritis of the symphysis pubis. Skeletal Radiol 1995 Nov;24(8):605-7

Allen WC, Cope R. Coxa Saltans: The Snapping Hip Revisited. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 1995; 3(5):303-308.

Allsop JR. Symphysis pubis dysfunction. Br J Gen Pract 1997 Apr;47(417):256

Altenberg AR. Acetabular labrum tears: a cause of hip pain and degenerative arthritis. South Med J. 1977;70:174-175

Anderson FC, Pandy MG. Storage and utilization of elastic strain energy during jumping. J Biomechanics. 1993;26:1413-1427.

Anderson K et al. Hip and groin injuries in athletes Am J Sports Med 2001; 29:521-33.

Anderson LA, et al. Acetabular cartilage delamination in femoracetabular impingement. J Bone Joint Surg 2009;91:305-313

Andrews SK, Carek PJ. Osteitis pubis: a diagnosis for the family physician. J Am Board Fam Pract 1998 Jul-Aug;11(4):291-5

Aronson J, Tursky EA. The torsional basis for slipped capital femoral epiphysis. Clin Ortho and Related research. 1996;322:37-42.

Aronsson DD, Loder RT. Treatment of the Unstable (Acute) slipped capital femoral epiphysis. Clin Orth. 1996;322:99-110.

Athanasiou KA, Agarwal A, Dzida FJ. Comparative study of the intrinsic mechanical properties of the human acetabular and femoral head cartilage. J of Ortho. Res. 1994;12:340-349.

Athanasiou KA, Agarwal A, Muffoletto A, Dzida JF, Constantinides G, Clem M. Biomechanical properties of hip cartilage in experimental animal models. Clin Orth. Related Research. 1995;319:254-266.

Azurin DJ, Go LS, Schuricht A, McShane J, Bartolozzi A. Endoscopic preperitoneal herniorrhaphy in professional athletes with groin pain. J
Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A 1997 Feb;7(1):7-12

Bardakos NV, Villar RN. Predictors of progression of osteoarthritis in femoracetabular impingement. J Bone Joint Surg 2009;91-B: 162-9

Baril L, Caumes E, Bricaire F. Pubic pain after a marathon. Lancet 1998 Feb

Basbaum A. The Neurochemistry of Pain. Presented at the 2nd World Congress of the World Institute of Pain. June 26-29, 2001. Istanbul, Turkey..

Basbaum AI. Neurochemistry of acute and persistent pain. Grass Travelling Neuroscientist Lecture Program. Friday, May 5th 2000. TTUHSC.

Batt ME, McShane JM, Dillingham MF. Osteitis pubis in collegiate football players. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1995 May;27(5):629-33

Baumann JU, Schar A, Meier G. Forces and turning moments of hip and knee joints in locimotion. Orthopade. 1992;21(1):29-34.

Beck M, A Woo, M Leunig, R Ganz. Gluteus minimus-induced femoral head deformation in dysplasia of the hip. Acta Orthopaedica Scandinavica, 2001, Vol 72, Iss 1, pp 13-17

Beck M, et al. Hip morphology influences the pattern of damage to the acetabular cartilage. J Bone Joint Surg (Br). 2005; 87(B):1012-1018.

Bellaiche L, Champsaur P, Hamze B, [The labrum acetabulare]. Ann Radiol.

Bellaiche L, Wybier M, Champsaur P. [-Arthrography of the hip-]. Ann Radiol.

Benzon HT, Katz JA, Benzon HA, Iqbal MS. Piriformis syndrome: anatomic considerations, a new injection technique, and a review of the literature. Anesthesiology. 2003;98(6):1442-8.

Bergmann G, Deuretzbacher G, et al. Hip contact forces and gait patterns from routine activities. J Biomech 2001; 34:859-71.

Berthelot JM, F Potaux, C Alliaume, A Prost, Y Maugars A case of hip rotator cuff tear revealed by refractory gluteus medius tendinosis Joint Bone Spine, 2001; 68:360-363.

Bihmani MA et al. Pigmented villinodular synovitis. Keys to early diagnosis. Clin Orthop Rel Res 2001, 388:197-202.

Bird JWT, Jones KS. Hip arthroscopy in athletes. Clin Sports Med 2001; 20:74961.

Bird PA, Oakley SP, Shnier R, Kirkham BW. Prospective evaluation of magnetic resonance imaging and physical examination findings in patients with greater trochanteric pain syndrome. Arthritis Rheum. 2001 Sep;44(9):2138-45.

Blankenbaker DG, Tuite MJ. The painful hip: new concepts. Skeletal Radiol. 2006; 35:352-370.

Bradshaw C et al. Obturator nerve entrapment; A cause of groin pain in athletes. Am J Sports Med. 1997; 25:402-8

Brady LP. Hip pain. Don’t throw away the cane. Postgrad Med. 1988 Jun;83(8):89-90, 95-7.

Brantingham JW, Globe G, Pollard H, Hicks M, Korporaal C, Hoskins W. Manipulative therapy for lower extremity conditions: expansion of literature review. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2009 Jan;32(1):53-71.

Briggs RC, Kolbjornsen PH, Southall RC. Osteitis pubis, Tc-99m MDP, and professional hockey players. Clin Nucl Med 1992 Nov;17(11):861-3

Brignall CG, Brown RM, Stainsby GD. Fibrosis of the gluteus maximus as a cause of snapping hip. A case report. JBJS 1993; 75-A: 909-10.

Brinckmann P, Hoefert H, Jongen JT. Sex differences in the skeletal geometry of the human pelvis and hip joint. J Biomech 1981; 14:427-30.

Brosseau L, Casimiro L, Milne S, Robinson V, Shea B, Tugwell P, Wells G. Deep transverse friction massage for treating tendinitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(4):CD003528. Review.

Brown MD, Gomez-Marin O, Brookfield KF, Li PS. Differential diagnosis of hip disease versus spine disease. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2004;(419):280-4.

Bruce W, Van Der Wall H, Storey G, Loneragan R, Pitsis G, Kannangara S. Bone scintigraphy in acetabular labral tears. Clin Nucl Med. 2004; 29(8):465-8.

Byrd JW. Labral lesions: an elusive source of hip pain case reports and literature review. Arthroscopy. 1996;12:603-612.

Byrd JW, Jones KS. Traumatic rupture of the ligamentum teres as a source of hip pain. Arthroscopy. 2004 Apr;20(4):385-91.

Cappiello GA, Oliver BC. Rupture of symphysis pubis caused by forceful and excessive abduction of the thighs with labor epidural anesthesia. J Fla Med
Assoc 1995 Apr;82(4):261-3

Carney BT, Weinstein SL. Natural history of untreated chronis slipped capital femoral epiphysis. Clin Ortho and Related Research. 1996;322:43-47.

Catania J, Fullerton KJ. Osteitis pubis in a 78 year old female. Postgrad Med J
1988 Feb;64(748):132-3

Caudill P et al. Sports hernias: A systematic literature review. Br J Sports Med

Chen CE, Ko JY, Li CC, Wang CJ. Acute septic arthritis of the hip in children. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2001; 121(9):521-6.

Chevrot A, Adamsbaum C, Gailly G, et al. [The labrum acetabular. Apropos of 121 arthrographies of the hip in adults]. J Radiol. 1988;69:711-720

Cho KH, Lee SM, Lee YH, Suh KJ, Kim SM, Shin MJ, Jang HW. Non-infectious ischiogluteal bursitis: MRI findings. Korean J Radiol. 2004 Oct-Dec;5(4):280-6.

Christel P, Djian P, Wittvoet J. [Pubalgia. A syndrome in of sport injury, corresponding to locoregional pathology]. [Article in French] Rev Prat 1993 Mar 15;43(6):729-32

Cliborne AV, Wainner RS, Rhon DI, Judd CD, Fee TT, Matekel RL, Whitman JM. Clinical hip tests and a functional squat test in patients with knee osteoarthritis: reliability, prevalence of positive test findings, and short-term response to hip mobilization. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2004 Nov;34(11):676-85.

Clohisy JC, Knaus ER, Hunt DM, Lesher JM, Harris-Hayes M, Prather H. Clinical presentation of patients with symptomatic anterior hip impingement. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2009;467(3):638-44.

Cohen SP, Narvaez JC, Lebovits AH, Stojanovic MP. Corticosteroid injections for trochanteric bursitis: is fluoroscopy necessary? A pilot study. Br J Anaesth. 2005;94(1):100-6.

Conn KS, Villar RN. [Labrum lesions from the viewpoint of arthroscopic hip surgery]. Orthopaede. 1998;27:699-703

Cooperman DR, Stulberg SD. Ambulatory containment treatment in Perthes’ disease. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1986 Feb;(203):289-300.

Cotten A, Boutry N, Demondion X, Paret C, Dewatre F, Liesse A, Chastanet P,
Fontaine C. Acetabular labrum: MRI in asymptomatic volunteers. J Comput
Assist Tomogr. 1998;22:1-7

Crevenna R, Kéilani M, Wiesinger G, Nicolakis P, Quittan M, Fialka-Moser V. Calcific trochanteric bursitis: resolution of calcifications and clinical remission with non-invasive treatment. A case report. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2002 May 15;114(8-9):345-8.

Cuckler JM, Moore KD, Estrada L.Outcome of hemiresurfacing in osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2004;(429):146-50

Currier LL, Froehlich PJ, Carow SD, McAndrew RK, Cliborne AV, Boyles RE, Mansfield LT, Wainner RS. Development of a clinical prediction rule to identify patients with knee pain and clinical evidence of knee osteoarthritis who demonstrate a favorable short-term response to hip mobilization. Phys Ther. 2007 Sep;87(9):1106-19.

Czerny C, Hofmann S, Neuhold A, Tschauner C, et al. Lesions of the acetabular labrum: accuracy of MR imaging and MR arthrography in detection and staging.
Radiology. 1996;200:225-230

Davidson CJ, Ganion LR, Gehlsen GM, Verhoestra B, Roepke JE, Sevier TL. Rat
tendon morphologic and functional changes resulting from soft tissue mobilization. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1997 ;29(3):313-9.

Day WH et al. Contact pressures in the loaded human cadaver hip. J Bone Joint Surg 1975; 57B:302-13.

De Brujin R. Deep transverse friction: its analgesic effect. Int J Sports Med.
1984; 5:35-36.

Death AB, Kirby RL, MacMillan CL. Pelvic ring mobility: assessed by stress radiography. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1982 May;63(5):204-6

DellaValle AG, F Piccaluga, HG Potter, EA Salvati, R Pusso. Pigmented villonodular synovitis of the hip – 2-to 23-year followup study. Clin Orthop Rel Res 2001, 388:187-199

DellaValle, Rafii M, Jaffe ML. Iliopsoas tendinitis after total hip arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty 2001; 16:923-6.

Dennis DA, RD Komistek, EJ Northcut, JA Ochoa, A Ritchie. ”In vivo” determination of hip joint separation and the forces generated due to impact loading conditions. J Biomech, 2001; 34: 623-629.

Deuretzbacher G, et al. Hip contact forces and gait patterns from routine activities. J Biomech 2001; 34:859-71.

Deuretzbacher G, et al. Hip contact forces and gait patterns from routine activities. J Biomech 2001; 34:859-71.

Devor M. 2001. Neuropathic pain. Presented at the 2nd World Congress of the World Institute of Pain. June 26-29, Istanbul, Turkey.

Dienst M, Godde S, Seil R, Hammer D, Kohn D. Hip arthroscopy without traction: In vivo anatomy of the peripheral hip joint cavity. Arthroscopy, 2001; 17:914-31.

Diesen DL, Pappas TN. Sports hernias. Adv Surg. 2007; 41:177-187.

Dobbs MB et al. Surgical correction of the snapping iliopsoas tendon in adolescents. J Bone Joint Surg 2002; 84-A:420-24.

Dunn MG, Liesch JB, Tiku ML, Zawadsky JP. Development of fibroblast-seeded ligament analogs for ACL reconstruction. Journal of Bimedical Materials Research. 1995;29:1363-1371.

Eckberg O et al. Long standing groin pain in athletes. A multidisciplinary approach. Sports Med 1988; 6:56-61.

Edsberg B, Rubinstein E, Reimers J. Containment of the femoral head in LeggCalve-Perthes’ disease and its prognostic significance. Acta Orthop Scand. 1979;50(2):191-5.

Eisenshenk A, et al. Treatment of femoral had necrosis with vascularized iliac crest transplants. Clin Orthop Rel Res 2001; 386:100-5.

Eckberg O et al. Long standing groin pain in athletes. A multidisciplinary approach. Sports Med 1988; 6:56-61.

Eckberg O, Persson NH, Abrahamsson PA, Westlin NE, Lilja B. Longstanding groin pain in athletes. A multidisciplinary approach. Sports Med 1988 Jul;6(1):5661

Ekberg O, Sjoberg S, Westlin N. Sports-related groin pain: evaluation with MR imaging. Eur Radiol 1996;6(1):52-5

Elke R, Marugg S. Transmission of force to the trabecular structures of the proximal end of the femur. Orthopade. 1992;21(1):51-6.

Ellison JB et al. Patterns of hip rotation range of motion: A comparison between healthy subjects and patients with low back pain. Phys Ther 1990; 70:537-41.

Erhard RE, Egloff BP. Patient with metastatic adenocarcinoma imitating lumbar herniated nucleus pulposis. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2004;27(9):569-73.

Eur J Dermatol 1998 Oct-Nov;8(7):511-4

Fadul DA, Carrino JA. Imaging of Femoroacetabular impingement. J Bone Joint Surg 2009;91 Supp 1:38-43

Farjo LA, Glick JM, Sampson TG. Hip arthroscopy for acetabular labral tears. Arthroscopy 1999; 15:132-37.

Fautrez J. [Guide for the study of human anatomy]. Luik, Belgium: Desoer; 1967: 288

Fautrez J. Guide for the study of systemic dissection of man. Dutch. Luik, Belgium: Desoer; 1967:271.

Fitzgerald RH Jr. Acetabular labrum tears. Diagnosis and treatment. Clin Orthop.

Fricker PA, Taunton JE, Ammann W. Osteitis pubis in athletes. Infection, inflammation or injury? Sports Med 1991 Oct;12(4):266-79

Fujita I, Matsumoto K. Ischiogluteal bursitis: multimodality imaging findings. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2003;(406):214-7.

Gallinaro, et al. Flexion osteotomy in the treatment of avascular necrosis of the hip. Clin Orthop Rel Res 2001; 386:79-84.

Gamble JG, Simmons SC, Freedman M. The symphysis pubis. Anatomic and pathologic considerations. Clin Orthop 1986 Feb;(203):261-72

Garbuz DS, Masri BA, Haddad F, Duncan CP. Clinical and radiographic assessment of the young adult with symptomatic hip dysplasia. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2004 Jan;(418):18-22.

Genda E, Konishi N, Hasegawa Y, Miura T. A computer simulation stydy of normal and abnormal hip joint contact pressure. Arcg Irtgio Trayna Surg. 1995;114:202-206.

Givon U, Liberman B, Schindler A, Blankstein A, Ganel A. Treatment of septic arthritis of the hip joint by repeated ultrasound-guided aspirations. J Pediatr Orthop. 2004;24(3):266-70.

Grabski RS. [Pain in the pubic symphysis in acute inflammation of the pudendal nerve].[Article in Polish]. Wiad Lek 1987 Oct 1;40(19):1342-4

Grace JN, Sim FH, Shives TC, Coventry MB. Wedge resection of the symphysis pubis for the treatment of osteitis pubis. J Bone Joint Surg [Am] 1989

Graf R. [The acetabular labrum in infants]. Orthopaede. 1998;27:670-674

Greenwald AS, Haynes DW. Weight-Bearing areas in the human hip joint.The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. 1972;54B 1:157-163.

Greenwald AS, O’connor JJ. The transmission of load through the human hip joint. J. Biomechanics. 1971;4:507-528.

Greenwood MJ, Erhard RE, Jones DL. Differential diagnosis of the hip vs. lumbar spine: five case reports. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 1998 Apr;27(4):308-15.

Guss DA. Hip fracture presenting as isolated knee pain. Annals of Emergency Medicine. 1997;29:418-420.

Haller J, Resnick D, Greenway G, et al. Juxtaacetabular ganglionic (or synovial) cysts: CT and MR features. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 1989;13:976-983

Hammer WI. The use of transverse friction massage in the management of chronic bursitis of the hip or shoulder. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1993 Feb;16(2):107-11.

Han M, Kim H. Chronic hip instability as a cause of autonomic dysreflexia: Successful management by resection arthroplasty. A case report. J Bone Joint Surg 2003; 85A:126-8.

Harris WH, Bourne RB, Oh I. Intra-articular acetabular labrum: a possible etiological factor in certain cases of osteoarthritis of the hip. J Bone Joint Surg.

Harvey G, Bell S. Obturator neuropathy. An anatomic perspective. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1999;(363):203-11.

Hase T, Ueo T. Acetabular labral tear: Arthroscopic diagnosis and treatment. Arthroscop 1999; 15:138-141.

Hasegawa Y, Fukatsu H, Matsuda T, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging in osteoarthrosis of the dysplastic hip. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg.1996;115:243-248

Hayashi H, Nakamura T, Konishi J. MR appearance of parasymphseal insufficiency fractures of the os pubis. Skeletal Radiol 1997 Sep;26(9):525-8

Heimkes B, Posel P, Plitz W. Biomechanics of the hip joint in children.Zeitschrift fur Orthopadie und Ihre Grenzgebiete. 1995; 133(4):357-63.

Heller MO, et al. Influence of femoral anteversion on proximal femoral loading: Measurement and simulation in four patients. Clin Biomech 2001; 16:644-9.

Herring JA, Kim HT, Browne R. Legg-Calve-Perthes disease. Part II: Prospective multicenter study of the effect of treatment on outcome. Bone Joint Surg Am. 2004; 86-A(10):2121-34.

Hewitt J, F Guilak, R Glisson, TP Vail. Regional material properties of the human hip joint capsule ligaments. J Orthop Res, 2000; 19:359-364

Hewitt J, R Glisson, F Guilak,, TP Vail. The mechanical properties o the human hip capsule ligaments. J Arthroplasty, 2002; 17:82-89.

Hill PF, Chatterji S, Chambers D, Keeling JD. Stress fracture of the pubic ramus in female recruits. JBJS 1996; 78-B:383-6.

Hlavacek M. The role of synovial fluid filtration by cartilage in lubrication of synovial joins-II. Squeeze-film lubrication: homogenous filtration. J.
Biomechanics. 1993;26:1151-1160.

Hoeksma HL, Dekker J, Ronday HK, Heering A, van der Lubbe N, Vel C, Breedveld FC, van den Ende CH. Comparison of manual therapy and exercise therapy in osteoarthritis of the hip: a randomized clinical trial. Arthritis Rheum. 2004 Oct 15;51(5):722-9.

Hodler J, Yu JS, Goodwin D, et al. MR arthrography of the hip: improved imaging of the acetabular labrum with histologic correlation in cadavers. AJR 1995; 165:887-91.

Hofmann S, Tschauner C, Urban M, Eder T, Czerny C. [Clinical and diagnostic imaging of labrum lesions in the hip joint]. Orthopaede. 1998 ;27:681-689

Hong RJ, et al. MRI of the hip. JMRI. 2008; 27:435-445

Holt MA, Keene JS, Graf BK, Helwig DC. Treatment of osteitis pubis in athletes.
Results of corticosteroid injections. Am J Sports Med 1995 Sep-Oct;23(5):601-6

Horii M, Kubo T, Inoue S, Kim WC. Coverage of the femoral head by the acetabular labrum in dysplastic hips: quantitative analysis with radial MR imaging. Acta Orthop Scand. 2003 Jun;74(3):287-92.

Hosono M, Kobayashi H, Fujimoto R, Tsutsui K, Kotoura Y, Tsuboyama T,

Hottat N, Fumiere E, Delcour C. Calcific tendinitis of the gluteus maximus tendon: CT findings. Eur Radiol. 1999;9(6):1104-6.

Hreljac A. Determinants of the gait transition speed during human locomotion: kinematic factors. J biomechanics. 1995; 28:669-677.

Hughes S, Goldstein M, Hicks D, Pelligrini V. Extrapelvic Compression of the
Sciatic Nerve. JBJS: 74-A, 10, 1553-1559, 1992

Hurdle MF, et al. US guided blockade of the LFCN. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2007; 88:1362-1364.

Ikeda T, Awaya G, Suzuki S, et al. Torn acetabular labrum in young patients.
Arthroscopic diagnosis and management. J Bone Joint Surg. 1988;70(B):13-16

Ito K, et al. Histopathologic features of the acetabular labrum in femoroacetabular impingement. Clin Orthop Rel Res. 2004; 429:262-271.

Itoigawa Y, Azuma H, Kako K. [A histopathological study on aging process of the acetabulum with special reference to the pathogenesis of the acetabular cyst].
Nippon Seikeigeka Gakkai Zasshi. 1980;54:223-233

Jaeger M, et al. Femoroacetabular impingement caused by a femoral osseous head-neck bump deformity: clinical radiological, and experimental results. J Orthop Sci. 2004;9:256-263.

Janzen DL, Partridge E, Logan PM, Connell DG, Duncan CP. The snapping hip: clinical and imaging findings in transient subluxation of the iliopsoas tendon. Can Assoc Rad J 1996; 47:

James SL, et al. Am J Roentgenol. 2006 Dec;187(6):1412-9. MRI findings of femoroacetabular impingement.

Joassin R, Vandemeulebroucke M, Nisolle JF, Hanson P, Deltombe T. Adhesive capsulitis of the hip: three case reports. Ann Readapt Med Phys. 2008;51(4):30114.

Joerring S, Jensen LT. Changes in collagen metabolites in serum after cemented hip and knee arthroplasty. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 1993; 112:139-141.

Johnson AW, Weiss CB, Wheeler DL. Stress fractures of the femoral shaft in athletes-More common than expected. Am J Sports Med. 1994;22:248-256

Johnson AE, Granville RR, DeBerardino TM. Avulsion of the common hamstring tendon origin in an active duty airman. Mil Med. 2003 Jan;168(1):40-2.

Kachingwe AF, Gretch S. Proposed algorithm for the management of athletes with athletic pubalgia(sports hernia): A case series. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2008;38(12):768-81.

Kagan A. Rotator cuff tears of the hip. Clin Orthop Rel Res 1999; 368:135-40.

Kammerer-Doak DN, Cornella JL, Magrina JF, Stanhope CR, Smilack J. Osteitis pubis after Marshall-Marchetti-Krantz urethropexy: a pubic osteomyelitis. Am J
Obstet Gynecol 1998 Sep;179(3 Pt 1):586-90

Karpos PA, Spindler KP, Pierce MA, Shull HJ Jr. Osteomyelitis of the pubic symphysis in athletes: a case report and literature review. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1995 Apr;27(4):473-9

Kelley B, Anderson R, Miles K. Acetabular labrum tear in a 15-year-old male:
diagnosis with correlative imaging. Australas Radiol. 1997;411:57-159

Khapchik V, RJ ODonnell, JM Glick. Arthroscopically assisted excision of osteoid osteoma involving the hip. Arthroscopy, 2001;17: 60-61.

Kim YT, Azuma H. The nerve endings of the acetabular labrum. Clin Orthop.

King JB. Treatment of osteitis pubis in athletes: results of corticosteroid injections. Am J Sports Med 1996 Mar-Apr;24(2):248

Kingzett-Taylor A, Tirman PF, Feller J, McGann W, Prieto V, Wischer T, Cameron JA, Cvitanic O, Genant HK. Tendinosis and tears of gluteus medius and minimus muscles as a cause of hip pain: MR imaging findings. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1999; 173(4):1123-6.

Kirschner JS, Foye PM, Cole JL. Piriformis syndrome, diagnosis and treatment. Muscle Nerve. 2009 May 22. [Epub ahead of print]

Klaue K, Durnin CW, Ganz R. The acetabular rim syndrome. J Bone Joint Surg.

Kocher MS, Mandiga R, Zurakowski D, Barnewolt C, Kasser JR. Validation of a clinical prediction rule for the differentiation between septic arthritis and transient synovitis of the hip in children. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2004;86-A(8):1629-35.

Konrath GA, Hamel AJ, Olson SA, Bay B, Sharkey NA. The role of the acetabular labrum and the transverse acetabular ligament in load transmission in the hip. J
Bone Joint Surg. 1998;80:1781-1788

Korompilias AV, et al. Hemorrhage and thrombus formation in early experimental osteonecrosis. Clin Orthop Rel Res 2001; 386:11-8.

Korpelainen R, Orava S, Karpakka J, Siira P, Hulkko A. Risk factors for recurrent stress fractures in athletes. Am J Sports Med. 2001; 29(3):304-10.

Kouvalchouk JF, Guyot J, Boisaubert B, Watin-Augouard L, Paszkowski A.
[Anterior snapping of the hip associated with the iliopsoas]. Rev Chir Orthop
Reparatrice Appar Mot. 1998;84:67-74

Kummer B. Is the Pauwels’ theory of hip biomechanics still valid? A critical analysis, based on modern methods.Anatomischer Anzeiger. 1993;175(3):20310.

Kurrat HJ, Oberlander W. The thichkess of the cartilage in the hip joint. J Anat. 1978; 126:144-55.

LaBan MM, Meerschaert JR, Taylor RS, Tabor HD. Symphyseal and sacroiliac joint pain associated with pubic symphysis instability. Arch Phys Med Rehabil
1978 Oct;59(10):470-2

Lapadula G, Iannone F, Zuccaro C, Covelli M. Patella V, Lobianco G. Pipitone V. Expression of membrane-bound peptidases (CD10 and CD25) on human articular chondrocytes. Possible role of neuropeptidases in the pathogeneses of osteoarthritis. Clinical and Experimentsl Rheumatology. 1995;13(2):143-8.

Laslett M. Bilateral Buttock Pain caused by Aortic Stenosis: a Case Report of
Claudication of the Buttock, Manual Therapy. 5(4): 227-33, 2000

Laudet CG, Lazennec JY, Guerin-Surville H. Validity of the Pauwels theory: Focus on experimental methods for studying deformations of the hip joint during unilateral and bilateral weight-bearing. Bulletin de 1 Association des Anatomistes. 1992;76(233):43-7.

Lavigne M, Parvizi J, Beck M, Siebenrock KA, Ganz R, Leunig M. Anterior femoroacetabular impingement: part I. Techniques of joint preserving surgery. Clin Orthop. 2004;(418):61-616.

Le Jeune JJ, Rochcongar P, Vazelle F, Bernard AM, Herry JY, Ramee A. Pubic pain syndrome in sportsmen: comparison of radiographic and scintigraphic findings. Eur J Nucl Med 1984;9(6):250-3

Lecouvet FE, Vande Berg BC, Malghem J, Lebon CJ, Moysan P, Jamart J, Maldague BE. AJR. MR imaging of the acetabular labrum: variations in 200 asymptomatic hips. Am J Roentgenol. 1996;167:1025-1028

Ledoux M, Maigne JY, Maigne R. [Fissure of the acetabular labrum. A cause of hip blockage and pain]. Rev Rhum Mal Osteoartic. 1986;53:657-658

Lentz SS. Osteitis pubis: a review. Obstet Gynecol Surv 1995 Apr;50(4):310-5

Leopold SS, Battista V, Oliverio JA. Safety and efficacy of intraarticular jip injection using anatomic landmarks. Clin Orthop Rel Res 2001; 391:192-7.

Lequesne M, et al. Gluteal tendinopathy in refractory greater trochanter pain syndrome: Diagnostic value of two clinical tests. Arthritis & Rheumatism. 2008; 59,2:241-246.

Lesher J, et al. Hip joint pain referral patterns: A descriptive study. Pain Medicine. 2008; 9,1:22-25.

Leunig M, Beck M, Woo A, Dora C, Kerboull M, Ganz R. Acetabular rim degeneration – A constant finding in the aged hip. Clin Orthop Rel Res, 2003; 413:201-207.

Leunig M, Werlen S, Ungersbock A, et al. Evaluation of the acetabular labrum by MR arthrography. J Bone Joint Surg. 1997;79(B):230-234

Lohe F,Eckstein F,Putz R. Stress on the ligamentum transversum acetabuli in physiological stress on the hip joint. Unfallchirurg. 1994;97(9):445-9.
Lymphangiosarcoma of the pubic region: a rare complication arising in congenital non-hereditary lymphedema.

Maffulli N, Longo UG. How do eccentric exercises work in tendinopathy? Rheumatology (Oxford). 2008 Oct;47(10):1444-5.

Major NM, Helms CA. Pelvic stress injuries: the relationship between osteitis pubis (symphysis pubis stress injury) and sacroiliac abnormalities in athletes.

Mann RW. Comments on the influence of the acetabular labrum on hip joint cartilage consolixation: a poroelastic finite element model. J Biomech, 2002; 35:147-9.

Maruyama M, Feinberg JR, Capello W, Antonio JA. Morphologic features of the acetabulum and femur-Anteversion angle and implant positioning. Clin Orthop Rel Res 2001; 393:52-65.

Mason JB. Acetabular labral tears in the athlete. Clin Sports Med. 2001; 20:77990.

McCarthy B, Dorfman HD. Pubic osteolysis. A benign lesion of the pelvis closely mimicking a malignant neoplasm. Clin Orthop 1990 Feb;(251):300-7

McCarthy JC et al. the role of labral lesions to development of early degenerative hip desease. Clin Orthop rel res, 2001; 393:25-37.

McCarthy JC, Busconi B. The role of hip arthroscopy in the diagnosis and treatment of hip disease. Can J Surg. 1995 Feb;38:S13-17

McCarthy JC, Lee J. Acetabular dysplasia: A paradigm of arthroscopic examination of chondral injuries. Clin Orthop Rel Res 2002; 405:122-8.

McCrory P, Bell S. Nerve entrapment syndromes as a cause of pain in the hip, groin and buttock. Sports Med 199927:261-72.

McLeish RD, Charnley J. Abduction forces in the one-legged stance. J Biomech 1970; 3:191-209.

Meissner A, Fell M, Wilk R, Boenick U, Rahmanzadeh R. [Biomechanics of the pubic symphysis. Which forces lead to mobility of the symphysis in physiological conditions]? [Article in German] Unfallchirurg 1996 Jun;99(6):415-21

Mellin G. Correlations of hip mobility with degree of back pain and lumbar spinal mobility in chronic low-back pain patients. Spine. 1988; 13(6):668-70.

Mens J, Inklaar H, Koes BW, Stam HJ. A new view on adduction-related groin pain. Clin J Sport Med. 2006 Jan;16(1):15-9.

Mens JM, Damen L, Snijders CJ, Stam HJ. The mechanical effect of a pelvic belt in patients with pregnancy-related pelvic pain. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2006 Feb;21(2):122-7.

Meyers WC et al. Management of sever lower abdominal or inguinal pain in highperformance athletes. Am J Sports Med 2000; 28:2-8.

MG Stiris. Magnetic resonance arthrography (MR arthrography) of the hip joint in patients with clinical suspicion of acetabular labrum tear. Tidsskrift for Den Norske Laegeforening, 2001, Vol 121, Iss 6, pp 698-700.

Millis MB, Murphy SB. Orthopaede. 1998;27:751-758

Mintz DN, Hooper T, Connell D, Buly R, Padgett DE, Potter HG. Magnetic resonance imaging of the hip: detection of labral and chondral abnormalities using noncontrast imaging. Arthroscopy. 2005;21(4):385-93.

Mischkowski RA, et al. Lateral femoral cutaneous nerve and iliac crest bone grafts -anatomical and clinical considerations. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2006: 35:366-372.

Mont MA, Hungerford DS: Non-traumatic avascular necrosis of the femoral head. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1995 Mar; 77(3): 459-74

Mont MA et al. Osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Clin Orthop Rel Res 1998; 355S: S314-35.

Moore RS Jr, Stover MD, Matta JM. Late posterior instability of the pelvis after resection of the symphysis pubis for the treatment of osteitis pubis. A report of two cases. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1998 Jul;80(7):1043-8

Morelli V, Smith V. Groin injuries in athletes. Am Fam Phys 2001; 64:1405-14.

Moucharafie R, et al. Meralgia paresthetica: A result of tigh new trendy low cut trousers. International Journal of Surgery. 2007; xx:1-5.

Maruyama M, Feinberg JR, Capello W, Antonio JA. Morphologic features of the acetabulum and femur-Anteversion angle and implant positioning. Clin Orthop Rel Res 2001; 393:52-65.

Mast JW et al. Recognizing acetabular version in the radiographic presentation of hip dysplasia. Clin Orthop. 2004; 418:48-53.

Murphy SB, Ganz R, Muller ME. The prognosis in untreated dysplasia of the hip.
A study of radiographic factors that predict the outcome. J Bone Joint Surg Am.
1995; 77(7):985-9.

Muscato M, Lim-Dunham J, Demos TC, Lomasney LM. Radiologic case study – Avulsion fractur of the apophysis of the ischial tuberosity. Orthopedics 2001; 24:1198-1200.

Narvani AA, Tsiridis E, Tai CC, Thomas P. Acetabular labrum and its tears. Brit J Sports Med, 2003; 37:207-211.

Neumann DA. An Electromyographic Study of the Hip Abductor Muscles as Subjects With a Hip Prosthesis Walked With Different Methods of Using a Cane and Carrying a Load. Physical Therapy. 1999;79:1163-1176

Nicholas JJ, Haidet E, Helfrich D, Herndon JH, Cooperstein L. Groin and hip pain due to fractures at or near the pubic symphysis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1989 Sep;70(9):696-8

Nilsson BE, Danielsson LG, Hernborg SA. Clinical feature and natural course of

Nirschl RP. Tennis elbow tendinosis: Pathoanatomy, nonsurgical and surgical management. In: Gordon SL, Blair SJ, Fine LJ. Repetitive motion disorders of the upper extremity, eds. Rosemont,IL: American Academy of Orthopaedic

Nishii T, Nakanishi K, Sugano N, Naito H, Tamura S, Ochi T. Acetabular labral tears: contrast-enhanced MR imaging under continuous leg traction. Skeletal
Radiol. 1996;25:349-356

NYU Hospital for Joint Diseases Spine Center.
http://www.med.nyu.edu/hjd/hjdspine/education/glossary/definitionlist.html. Accessed 8/22/2007.

Oestgaard MC, Roos-Hansson E, Zetterstroem G. Regression of back and posterior pelvic pain after pregnancy. Spine. 1996;21:2777-2780.

Ohzono K, Sakai T, Haraguchi K, Lee K, Matsui M, Sugano N, Nishii T, Ochi T.
Orthopaede 1998;27:759-764

Orava S. Hamstring syndrome. Op Tech Sports Med 1997; 5:143-9

Papadopoulos EC, Khan SN. Piriformis syndrome and low back pain: a new classification and review of the literature. Orthop Clin North Am. 2004;35(1):6571.

Parvizi J, et al. Femoroacetabular impingement. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2007; 15,9:561-570.

Pavlov H, Nelson TL, Warren RF, Torg JS, Burstein AH. Stress fractures of the pubic ramus. A report of twelve cases. J Bone Joint Surg [Am] 1982

Pavlov H. Roentgen examination of groin and hip pain in the athlete. Clin Sports
Med 1987 Oct;6(4):829-43

Pelsser V, E Cardinal, R Hobden, B Aubin, M Lafortune. Extraarticular snapping hip: Sonographic findings. Am J Roentgen 2001; 176: 67-73. 202-8.

Petersilge CA, Haque MA, Petersilge WJ, Lewin JS, Lieberman JM, Buly R.
Acetabular labral tears: evaluation with MR arthrography. Radiology.

Petros PE. The pubourethral ligaments—an anatomical and histological study in the live patient. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 1998;9(3):154-7

Pfirrmann CW, Chung CB, Theumann NH, Trudell DJ, Resnick D. Greater trochanter of the hip: attachment of the abductor mechanism and a complex of three bursae–MR imaging and MR bursography in cadavers and MR imaging in asymptomatic volunteers. Radiology. 2001; 221(2):469-77.

Pitto RP, Klaue K, Ganz R, et al. Acetabular rim pathology secondary to congenital hip dysplasia in the adult. A radiographic study. Chir Organi Mov;

Pizzarello LD, Golden GT, Shaw A. Acute abdominal pain caused by osteitis pubis. Am Surg 1974 Nov;40(11):660-1

Plenk H, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging and histology of repair in femoral head osteonecrosis. Clin Orthop Rel Res 2001; 386:42-53.

Ploetz GMJ, et al. Magnetic resonance arthrography of the acetabular labrum. J Bone Joint Surg (Br). 2000; 82-B:426-432.

Pomorski L, Bartos M. Metastasis as the first sign of thyroid cancer. Neoplasma. 1999;46(5):309-12.

Portinaro NM, DW Murray, MKD Benson. Microanatomy of the acetabular cavity and its relation to growth. J Bone Joint Surg 2001; 83B, 377-383.

Puranen J, Orava S, The hamstring syndrome–a new gluteal sciatica. Ann Chir
Gynaecol. 1991;80:212-214

Putschar WG. The structure of the human symphysis pubis with special consideration of parturition and its sequelae. Am J Phys Anthropol 1976
Nov;45(3 pt. 2):589-94

Putz R, Schrank C. [Anatomy of the labro-capsular complex]. Orthopaede.

Rees JD. Current concepts in the management of tendon disorders. Rheumatology. 2006; 25:508-521.

Reijman M, Hazes JM, Pols HA, Koes BW, Bierma-Zeinstra SM. Acetabular dysplasia predicts incident osteoarthritis of the hip: the Rotterdam study. Arthritis Rheum. 2005; 52(3):787-93.

Renstroem AF. Groin injuries: A true challenge in orthopaedic sports medicine. Sports Med Arthroscopy Rev. 1997;5:247-51.

Ripani M, et al. The ischiatic region: normal and MRI anatomy. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2006. 46,3:468-475.

Robertson BA et al. The anatomy of the pubic region revisited. Sports Med 2009;39:225-34.

Robertson WJ, et al. Anatomy and dimensions of the gluteus medius tendon insertion. J Arthroscopic and Related Surgery. 2008; 24,2:130-136.

Roder C, Eggli S, Aebi M, Busato A. The validity of clinical examination in the diagnosis of loosening of components in total hip arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2003 Jan;85(1):37-44.

Rodriguez C et al. Osteitis pubis syndrome in the professional soccer athlete; A case report. Am J Sports Med 2001; 36:437-40.
Roentgenol. 1995;165:887-891

Rosenberg et al. Rapid destructive osteoarthritis: clinical, radiographic, and pathologic features. Radiology. 1992; 182:213-216.

Rosenthal RE, Spickard WA, Markham RD, Rhamy RK. Osteomyelitis of the symphysis pubis: a separate disease from osteitis pubis. Report of three cases and review of the literature. J Bone Joint Surg [Am] 1982 Jan;64(1):123-8

Rushfeld PD, Mann RW, Harris WH. Influence of cartilage geometry on the pressure distribution in the human hip joint. Science 1979; 204:413-15.

Rushfeldt PD, Mann RW, Harris WH. Improved techniques for measuring in vitro the geometry and pressure distribution in the human acetabulum II. Instrumented endoprosthesis measurement of articular surface pressure distribution. J Biomech 1981; 14:315-23.

Rutherford A. Osteomyelitis of the symphysis pubis. N Z Med J 1983 May

Samuel CS, Coghlan JP, Bateman JF. Effects of relaxin, pregnancy and parturition on collagen metabolism in the rat pubic symphysis. J Endocrinol 1998 Oct;159(1):117-25

Savvidis E, Loer F. A treatment principle with questionable effectiveness in Perthes disease. Zeitschrift fur Orthopadie und Ihre Grenzgebiete. 1992;130(2):120-4.

Sayegh F, Potoupnis M, Kapetanos G. Greater trochanter bursitis pain syndrome in females with chronic low back pain and sciatica. Acta Orthop Belg.

Schache AG et al. A comparison of overground and treadmill running for measuring the three-dimensional kinematics of the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex. Clin Biomech 2001; 16:667-80.

Schmidt-Olsen S, Jensen OH. A man with nontraumatic symphysiolysis. Acta
Orthop Scand 1987 Oct;58(5):587-8

Schnarkowski P, Steinbach LS, Tirman PF, Peterfy CG, Genant HK. Magnetic resonance imaging of labral cysts of the hip. Skeletal Radiol. 1996;25:733-737

Schults AB, Alexander NB, Ashton-Miller JA. Biomechanical analyses of rising from a chair. J. Biomechanics. 1992;25 :1383-1391.

Sean KG, Wolcott M. The athletic hernia: A systematic review. Clin Orthop Rel Res. 2006; 455:78-87.

Segal NA, et al. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome: Epidemiology and associated factors. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2007; 88:988-992.

Seldes RM, V Tan, J Hunt, M Katz, R Winiarsky, RH Fitzgerald. Anatomy, histologic features, and vascularity of the adult acetabular labrum. Clin Orthop Rel Res 2001; 382 232-240.

Seldes RM, V Tan, J Hunt, M Katz, R Winiarsky, RH Fitzgerald. Anatomy, histologic features, and vascularity of the adult acetabular labrum. Clin Orthop Rel Res 2001; 382 232-240.

Siebenrock KA, Schoeniger R, Ganz R. Anterior femoro-acetabular impingement due to acetabular retroversion. Treatment with periacetabular osteotomy. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2003;85-A(2):278-286

Singh S. Significance of the Lateral Epiphysis of the Acetabulum to Hip Joint
Stability Ann Acad Med Singapore 2003; 32:252-256

Sgambati E, Stecco A, Capaccioli L, Brizzi E. Morphometric evaluation of the symphysis pubis joint. Ital J Anat Embryol 1996 Jul-Sep;101(3):195-201

Shin AY, Morin WD, Gorman JD, Jones SB, Lapinsky AS. The superiority of magnetic resonance imaging in differentiating the cause of hip pain in endurance athletes. Am J Sports/Med. 1996; 24:168-176.

Siddall, PJ, & Cousins, MJ. Spine update: Spinal pain mechanisms. Spine, 1997; 22:98-104

Siguier T, et al. Partial resurfacing arthroplsty of the femoral head in avascular necrosis. Clin Orthop Rel Res 2001; 386:85-92.

Sizer, P., Phelps, V., Dedrick, G., Matthijs, O. (2002). Differential diagnosis and management of root related pain. Pain Practice, 2:98-121
Skeletal Radiol 1997 Dec;26(12):711-7

Skinner J, Glancy S, Beattie TF, Hendry GM. Transient synovitis: is there a need to aspirate hip joint effusions? Eur J Emerg Med. 2002; 9(1):15-8.

Slawski DP, Howard RF. Surgical Management of Refractory Trochanteric
Bursitis, Am J Sports Med, 1997, 25: 86-89

Snijders CJ, Hermans PF, Kleinrensink GJ. Functional aspects of cross-legged sitting with special attention to piriformis muscles and sacroiliac joints. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2006 Feb;21(2):116-21.

Sogaard I. Sciatic nerve entrapment. J Neurosurg. 1983;58:275-6

Sowa DT, Hotchkiss RN, Weiland AJ. Symptomatic Proximal translation of the radius following radial head resection. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research. 1995; 317:106-113.

Stasikelies PJ et al. Slipped captial femoral epiphysis: Prediction of contralateral involvement. JBJS 1996; 78-A: 1149-53.

Steinberg ME, et al. Core decompression with bone grafting for osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Clin Orthop Rel Res 2001; 386:71-8.

Steppacher SD, Tannast M, Ganz R, Siebenrock KA. Mean 20-year followup of Bernese periacetabular osteotomy. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2008 Jul;466(7):163344.

Suzuki S, Awaya G, Okada Y, et al. Arthroscopic diagnosis of ruptured acetabular labrum. Acta Orthop Scand.1986;57:513-515

Synek, V.M. The Piriformis Syndrome: review and Case Presentation. Clin. And Exper. Neurol. 23:31-37, 1987

Takahashi Y, Sato A, Nakamura SI, Suseki K, Takahashi K. Regional correspondence between the ventral portion of the lumbar intervertebral disc and the groin mediated by a spinal reflex. A possible basis of discogenic referred pain. Spine. 1998 Sep 1;23(17):1853-8; discussion 1859.

Tannast M et al. Hip damage occurs at the zone of femoroacetabular impingement. Clin Orthop Relat Res.2008.466:273-280.

Tatu L, Parratte B, Vuillier F, Diop M, Monnier G. Descriptive anatomy of the femoral portion of the iliopsoas muscle. Anatomical basis of anterior snapping of the hip. Surg Radiol Anat. 2001;23(6):371-4.

Taunton JE. A retrospective case-control analysis of 2002 running injuries. Br J Sports Med. 2002; 36:95-101.

Tibor LM, Sekiya JK. Differential diagnosis of pain around the hip joint. Arthroscopy. 2008;24(12):1407-21.

Theodorou DJ, et al. Multimodal imaging quantititation of the lesion size in osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Clin Orthop Rel Res 2001; 386:54-63.

Thomas SA. What is Pain Management?
http://www.spineuniverse.com/displayarticle.php/article3336.html. Accessed

Thomason HC 3rd, Bos GD, Renner JB. Calcifying tendinitis of the gluteus maximus. Am J Orthop. 2001; 30(10):757-8.

Tillman B. [Lower extremity]. In: Leonhardt H, Tillmann B, Töndury G, Zilles K, eds. [Human Anatomy. Band I. Locomotor System]. Stuttgart: Georg Thieme
Verlag; 1987:499

Tomomitsu K, Dohi N, Kajiwara T, Sumi N, Koyama Y, Miura T. An analysis of sit-to-stand movements. Phys Med Rehabil. 1993;74:1095-1099.

Trousdale RT, Cabanela MC. Lessons learned after more than 250 periacetabular osteotomies. Acta Orthop Scand. 2003; 74(2):119-126

Tschauner C, Hofmann S. Orthopaede. 1998;27:725-732

Urban M, Hofmann S, Tschauner C, Czerny C, Neuhold A, Kramer J. [MRI arthrography in labrum lesions of the hip joint. Method and diagnostic value].
Orthopade. 1998;27:691-698

Vallejo MC. Piriformis syndrome in a patient after cesarean section under spinal anesthesia. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2004;29(4):364-7.

Villar RN, AM Sheikh, A Arora. Hill-Sachs type lesion of the femoral head in a case of hip instability. Arthroscopy, 2000; 16:858-859.

Vossinakis et al. Radiographic associations for “primary” hip osteoarthrosis. Acta Orthop Scand. 2001; 72:600-608.

Walheim G, Olerud S, Ribbe T. Mobility of the pubic symphysis. Measurements by an electromechanical method. Acta Orthop Scand 1984 Apr;55(2):203-8

Walheim GG, Olerud S, Ribbe T. Motion of the pubic symphysis in pelvic instability. Scand J Rehabil Med 1984;16(4):163-9

Walker P, Kannangara S, Bruce WJ, Michael D, Van der Wall H. Lateral hip pain: does imaging predict response to localized injection? Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2007 Apr;457:144-9.

Weinstein SM. Clinical Pain States. http://umed.med.utah.edu/neuronet/lectures/past%20lectures/Pain%20states.htm ; Accessed 8/22/2007.

Wiese M, Rubenthaler F, Willburger RE, Fennes S, Haaker R. Early results of endoscopic trochanter bursectomy. Int Orthop. 2004;28(4):218-21.

Westin N. Groin pain in athletes from southern Sweden. Sports Med Arthroscopy Rev.1997;5:280-4.

Wiedmer L, Langer T, Knusel O. Gait pattern of patients with hip arthritis. Orthopade. 1992;21(1):35-40.

Wiley JJ. Am J Sports Med 1983 Sep-Oct;11(5):360-63

Williams & Warwick. Gray’s Anatomy. 37th Ed. London: 1989.

Williams JG. Limitation of hip joint movement as a factor in traumatic osteitis pubis. Br J Sports Med 1978 Sep;12(3):129-33

Williams PL, Warwick R, Dyson M, Bannister LH, eds. Gray’s Anatomy, 37th. Ed. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 1989:517

Yang JX, Zhu XY. Zhongguo Zhen Jiu. Observation on therapeutic effect of three needling method on piriformis injury syndrome. 2008 Mar;28(3):205-6.

Xenakis TA, et al. Cementless hip arthroplasty in the tretment of patients with femoral head necrosis. Clin Orthop Rel Res 2001; 386:9-9.

Pin It on Pinterest

Share This