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Diagnosis and Management of the Thoracic Spine and Ribs

This IAOM-US course is appropriate for ATs, OTs, PT’s and PTA’s.  The IAOM-US teaches that the essential starting point for orthopedic care is accurate clinical diagnosis.  IAOM courses and resources present effective musculoskeletal techniques established by leaders in the field.  Scientific and clinical research provides the foundation for the entire program.

The region of the thoracic spine and ribs are not well understood in medical literature and in the clinical setting.


Psst!  Hi!  This list will automatically update as you update the progress on the various modules. If you click these objectives, nothing will happen. 

Pathoanatomy I
Pathoanatomy II
Pathoanatomy III
Clinical Exam I
Clinical Exam II
Interpretation and Pathology
Disc Management
Local Exam and Segmental Testing
Pathoanatomy - Ribs
Clinical Exam - Ribs
Case Study for Thoracic Pain
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Links and References

Year Reference
2018 Heneghan NR, Smith R, Tyros I, Falla D, Rushton A (2018) Thoracic dysfunction in whiplash associated disorders: A systematic review. PLoS ONE 13(3): e0194235. https://doi. org/10.1371/journal.pone.0194235
2018 Hartstein AJ et al. Immediate Effects of Thoracic Spine Thrust Manipulation on Neurodynamic Mobility. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2018 Apr 15. pii: S0161-4754(16)30273-1. doi: 10.1016/j.jmpt.2017.10.006. [Epub ahead of print]
2018 Hou X et al. A systematic review of complications in thoracic spine surgery for ossification of ligamentum flavum. Spinal Cord. 2018 Apr;56(4):301-307. doi: 10.1038/s41393-017-0040-4. Epub 2017 Dec 28.
2017 Pecos-Martín et al. Immediate effects of thoracic spinal mobilisation on erector spinae muscle activity and pain in patients with thoracic spine pain: a preliminary randomised controlled trial. Physiotherapy 103 (2017) 90–97.
2017 Hidalgo B et al. The efficacy of manual therapy and exercise for treating non-specific neck pain: A systematic review. J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil. 2017 Nov 6;30(6):1149-1169. doi: 10.3233/BMR-169615.
2017 Xu N et al. A systematic review of complications in thoracic spine surgery for ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament.  Eur Spine J. 2017 Jul;26(7):1803-1809. doi: 10.1007/s00586-015-4097-5. Epub 2015 Jul 16.
2017 Karas S and Pannone A. T4 Syndrome: A Scoping Review of the Literature. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2017;40:118-125
2016 Hirai PM and Thompson OP. T4 syndrome e A distinct theoretical concept or elusive clinical entity? A case report. Journal of Bodywork & Movement Therapies (2016) 20, 722-727
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2016 Katzman WB et al. Thoracic kyphosis and rate of incident vertebral fractures: the Fracture Intervention Trial. Osteoporos Int. 2016 Mar;27(3):899-903. doi: 10.1007/s00198-015-3478-2. Epub 2016 Jan 18
2016 Barret E et al. Is thoracic spine posture associated with shoulder pain, range of motion and function? A systematic review. Man Ther. 2016 Dec;26:38-46. doi: 10.1016/j.math.2016.07.008. Epub 2016 Jul 21.
2016 Borkowski SL et al. Challenging the Conventional Standard for Thoracic Spine Range of Motion: A Systematic Review. JBJS Rev. 2016 Apr 5;4(4):e51-e511. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.RVW.O.00048.
2016 Joaquim AF et al. Thoracolumbar Injury Classification and Injury Severity Score System: A Literature Review of Its Safety.  Global Spine J. 2016 Feb;6(1):80-5. doi: 10.1055/s-0035-1554775. Epub 2015 Jun 5.
2015 Engel RM et al. Safety of thrust joint manipulation in the thoracic spine: a systematic review. J Man Manip Ther. 2015 Sep;23(4):173. doi: 10.1179/2042618615Y.0000000017.
2015 Louw A and Schmidt SG. Chronic pain and the thoracic spine. J Man Manip Ther. 2015 Jul;23(3):162-8.
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2015 Puentedura EJ and O’Grady WH. Safety of thrust joint manipulation in the thoracic spine: a systematic review. J Man Manip Ther. 2015 Jul;23(3):154-61.
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